Automotive applications of aluminum extrusions require a high level of performance combined with the need to tailor properties to particular components. This presentation will offer an overview of an industry-university research program with the objective of building a through process model linking the key manufacturing processes involved in the production of aluminum extrusions in order to predict the impact of alloy chemistry and processing variations on final mechanical behavior during forming or in crash scenarios. The approach taken follows the internal state variable framework where the evolution of key microstructural features is evaluated through the process and finally linked to mechanical response, i.e. strength and ductility. Case studies on industrial applications of the program and challenges for future work will be highlighted.
Warren Poole is Professor in the Department of Materials Engineering at The University of British Columbia and holds the Canada Research Chair in Through Process Modelling of Advanced Structural Materials and the Rio Tinto Aluminium Chair in Materials Process Engineering. He obtained his Ph.D. at McMaster University (1993) followed by a NSERC Post Doctoral Fellowship at the University of Cambridge, UK prior to joining UBC in 1994. Professor Poole has published over 200 journal and conference papers related to the deformation, fracture and microstructure evolution in light alloys and steels.
Professor Poole was Department Head of Materials Engineering (2008-2018) and is currently the inaugural Director of Applied Science newest engineering program, Manufacturing Engineering, which runs on both the UBCO and UBCV campuses.
He is the recipient of the 2017 Acta Materialia Holloman Award, the Dean’s Medal of Distinction (2017), the Canadian Metal Physics Award, a Killam Research Fellowship, has given over 75 invited talks and was a co-recipient of the Alan Blizzard Award for excellence in teaching. Professor Poole was elected Fellow of the Canadian Academy of Engineers in 2021.
Composition gradients and selective heat-treatments can be used to introduce controlled variations within the microstructure of a steel. The resulting microstructure gradients provide an extra degree of freedom for optimizing material properties. Recent efforts to produce graded materials with variations of substitutional and interstitial elements will be reviewed. The deformation behaviour of the resulting materials will be discussed with special emphasis on unique combinations of strength and ductility that could only be achieved using these materials. The fracture behaviour of graded materials will also be discussed. The advantages and disadvantages of having sharp interfaces within the microstructure will be highlighted.
Dr. Zurob obtained his Ph.D. from McMaster University in 2003. He held post-doctoral fellowships at the Grenoble Institute and Technology and Oxford University prior to joining McMaster as an Assistant Professor in 2005. He was promoted to Associate Professor in 2012 and Professor in 2017. Dr. Zurob is presently serving as Chair of the Department of Materials Science and Engineering.
The aim of Dr. Zurob’s research is to understand and control microstructure development in engineering materials with the goal of optimizing mechanical properties. The applicant has made significant contributions to the areas of thermomechanical processing, recrystallization modelling, functionally-graded materials, austenite decomposition and structure-property relationships. Dr. Zurob is the recipient of several prestigious awards including the Sawamura Award and Guimaraise Award of ISIJ and the Best Young Researcher Award of the Internationally Recrystallization and Grain Growth Conference. In addition, Dr. Zurob is a dedicated educator who was recognized by several teaching awards at McMaster. Dr. Zurob is also an active participant in professional societies including ASM, TMS and ASM Materials Camps Canada.
Mingzhang Yang + Mihaela Vlasea
PhD Student, University of Waterloo Professor at the University of Waterloo
Medium and high carbon steels (carbon ≥ 0.25 wt.%) are considered ‘non-weldable’ because of their high susceptibility to cracking during martensitic transformation. Therefore, in order to produce reliable, high-performance steel parts using laser powder bed fusion (LPBF), it is critical to optimize the process parameters. In line with this, an increased energy input is believed to lead to higher heat accumulation and subsequent tempering effects, thereby mitigating cracking.
To investigate this, non-spherical water-atomized (WA) low-alloy steel powders with 0.59 wt.% carbon were LPBF processed in three operational regimes – conduction mode, transition mode, and keyhole mode. The effects of changing the melting mode on the microstructure and mechanical properties were then systematically studied using optical microscopy, microhardness mapping, tensile testing, X-ray diffraction (XRD), field emission-secondary electron microscopy (FE-SEM), and X-ray computed tomography (XCT). In addition, the softening (tempering) response of the experimental steel was studied through a series of ex-situ furnace heat treatments and thermodynamic calculations.
Results showed that the in-situ heat treatment of steel during LPBF can be described as a sequential process of quenching and tempering, where a carbide-free martensitic structure forms initially during layer solidification and is subsequently tempered through heat conduction and heat accumulation. As the effective input energy increases, the extent of in-situ tempering increases as well, as evidenced by the coarsening of nano-sized carbides, dissolution of transition ε-carbides, reduction in lattice distortion, and decomposition of retained austenite. Notably, the keyhole specimen, which underwent the highest level of tempering, displayed a relatively high microhardness of 476.5 ± 32.9 Hv, close to that of the conduction specimen (489.9 ± 26.3 Hv). This was ascribed to the density of melt pool boundaries. Specifically, the keyhole sample, characterized by a lower density of melt pool boundaries, was less affected by the localized soft zones caused by cyclic heating and cooling in the vicinity of the melt pool boundaries.
Mingzhang Yang is a highly driven Ph.D. candidate at the Multi-scale Additive Manufacturing Laboratory (MSAM) in the University of Waterloo. His expertise in the physical metallurgy of steel has been instrumental in advancing metal additive manufacturing techniques with a special emphasis on incorporating low-cost, unconventional steel powders in the process. Mingzhang has completed several significant projects in this field, including the binder jetting of nearly fully-dense water-atomized low-alloy steel, supersolidus liquid phase sintering of binder jetted micro-sized features, and laser powder-bed fusion of crack-free medium-carbon steel. He is excited to present his latest research findings and insights at COM 2023, where he will share his approaches and advancements in the use of low-cost steel powders.
Mihaela Vlasea is an Associate Professor at the University of Waterloo, Mechanical and Mechatronics Engineering Department and the Research Co-Director of the Multi-Scale Additive Manufacturing Laboratory. Her research focuses on innovative design, process optimization and adoption of new materials for powder bed fusion and powder bed binder jetting additive manufacturing processes. The research goals are to bridge the technological gaps necessary to improve AM part quality, process repeatability and reliability.
Derek Kerfoot Memorial Pressure Hydrometallurgy Symposium
Pressure hydrometallurgy has allowed the processing of materials to intensify by removing the constraints of atmospheric temperature and pressure. The engineering, performance and cost effectiveness of high temperature and pressure reactors has continued to mature so that we now see applications across the base metals, light metals, precious metals and rare metals sectors. Pressure hydrometallurgy enables processes that are slow or incomplete at atmospheric conditions to proceed quickly completely. It is timely to consider the use of pressure hydrometallurgy to meet our modern challenges.
David completed his B.A.Sc. and Ph.D. in Metallurgical Engineering at Queen’s University at Kingston. Since 1984, David has worked at the University of British Columbia in Vancouver, Canada and holds the position of Professor and Chair, Industrial Research Chair in Hydrometallurgy. David and his students and colleagues have published over 300 technical articles and have actively taught short courses and seminars to the metallurgical community over the last 35 years.
David has worked closely with industry to develop and commercialize technology. Significant developments include the Mt. Gordon Copper Process, the first plant to treat whole ore using an autoclave leaching – SX – EW process and the Sepon Copper Process where a combination of atmospheric ore leaching and concentrate autoclaving was utilized to extract copper from a chalcocite/pyrite/clay ore. David is currently working on commercialization of technology in the extraction of battery materials and other critical materials with a focus on carbon negative processing and production of by-products that contribute to decarbonization of other industrial sectors.
David has received a number of professional awards including the Sherritt Hydrometallurgy Award (METSOC), the EPD Science Award (TMS), the Wadsworth Award (TMS) and the INCO Medal (CIM). David is a Fellow of CIM, Engineers Canada and the Canadian Academy of Engineering. David was recently elected to the United States National Academy of Engineering as an International Member.
Director, Technology Development, High Pressure Metallurgy, Hatch
The development of materials has enabled pressure hydrometallurgy to advance from its earliest documented applications, the alkaline leaching of bauxite by Karl Josef Bayer in 1892, followed by the Giles and Giles patent (1919) for batch-wise alkaline digestion and extraction of tungsten. It was however the mid-20th century before the development of duplex stainless steel and nickel alloys, titanium alloys, elastomeric membranes and refractory materials enabled pressure leaching technology to expand to a range of acidic and oxidative processes for treating a variety of ores, concentrates and matte for the recovery of uranium (Beaverlodge), nickel and cobalt (Moa Bay, Rustenburg), zinc (Hudson Bay, Trail) and copper (Bagdad). Further development of titanium alloys, polymers, ceramics and thermal spray coatings in this century has led the commercialization of continuous, high capacity, high pressure acid leaching and pressure oxidative leaching processes for economic extraction of base metals from laterite ores and polymetallic sulphide ores.
With an exponential growth in demand for materials from low-carbon footprint, environmentally responsible production sources, there is an ever greater need now to develop high performance, cost-effective, and recyclable materials to enable construction of the next generation of hydrometallurgical facilities for extraction and production of EV battery chemicals and precursors, copper, and rare earth elements. This presentation will cover the major milestones in material development from 1900 – present, and then address what is on the horizon for material technology development.
Murray has over 30 years of experience in mechanical engineering and design of specialty chemical and metallurgical process plants, including a diverse background in piping, instrumentation, estimating, procurement, and project engineering. His project assignments include feasibility studies, basic engineering and detailed design of autoclave facilities & related processes for the oxidation & extraction of non-ferrous metals such as gold, silver, nickel, cobalt, and copper. His assignments have included extensive site work on a variety of projects for sulphide oxidation, high pressure acid leaching, sulphide precipitation, strontium refining, titanium dioxide purification, as well as nylon-6 polymer, automotive paint, antioxidants, and organic acids production.
His field experience includes construction, inspection, and commissioning of several novel chemical process (CPI) facilities, start-up support for a synthetic rutile upgrade facility, commissioning, and start-up of a cobalt pressure oxidative leach circuit in Zambia. Between 2003 and 2006, Murray oversaw engineering and design of novel demonstration plants for chloride assisted oxidative leaching of nickel and copper sulphides (Voisey Bay Nickel, Usina Hydrometallurgical Carajas), and commercial processing of Pentlandite (Glencore/Xstrata CCR). From 2006 – 2008 he oversaw mechanical design of Sherritt International and General Nickel’s acid pressure leach and sulphide precipitation facilities in Moa Bay, Cuba. From 2008 to 2012, Murray supervised the mechanical design of the world’s largest pressure oxidation facility, constructed by Hatch, for the Pueblo Viejo Project, a 24 000 tonne per day refractory gold plant located in the Dominican Republic. From 2017 to 2021, he was project manager for Polymetal’s Amursk Phase 4 POX Hub Expansion, and oversaw the design, fabrication and delivery of the world’s largest pressure oxidation autoclave and its associated pressure oxidation facility.
Murray graduated with a Bachelor of Engineering from the University of Saskatchewan, and an MBA from Queens University, Smith School of Business. As Director of Technology Development for Hatch’s High-Pressure Metallurgy practice, his responsibilities include research & development of new technologies for hydrometallurgical applications, patents, and intellectual property related to pressure hydrometallurgy.
Murray is an industrial supporter of the Green Surface Engineering and Advanced Manufacturing (Green-SEAM) Network, and member of its Scientific Committee.
Integration for Better Outcomes
Manager Process Engineering & Geometallurgy, Canada Nickel Company
Mineral carbonation is a naturally occurring process that will contribute to the net zero transition through large scale carbon capture and storage. The main challenge required to realize this opportunity is to speed up the process in an economically feasible way.
Canada Nickel’s In Process Tailings (“IPT”) Carbonation technology is a novel approach to mineral carbon storage that is expected to create the largest CO2 sink in Ontario, with a capacity to store more than 1 million tonnes per year of CO2 at The Company’s Crawford Project. The Crawford Project is an ultramafic resource in Timmins, Ontario that contains critical metals including Ni, Co, Pt, Pd and Cr as well as these carbon sequestrating minerals. An overview of the IPT Carbonation Process and how this development could be used to offset pyrometallurgical emissions for zero carbon production of critical metals in Canada will be presented.
Dr.Doris Hiam-Galvez is a Senior Advisor at Hatch, Board Director for PDAC and Champion of Sustainable Development.
PhD in Metallurgy with broad senior-level experience in leading organizations to develop new businesses globally focused on value creation.
With Hatch for 16 yrs creating new and innovative business to expand the company in new regions (Australia, South America, Europe & North America). She managed Hatch Peru & Hatch Europe. Before joining Hatch she was Chief Technology Officer for Novelis, a major global metal manufacturer.
Working with clients around the world who were struggling with sustainability inspired her to develop “Designing Sustainable Prosperity (DSP)” a new way of doing business that leaves behind a positive sustainable economy with an improved environment.
The Laplante-Laskowski Symposium on Mineral Processing Fundamentals
From a casual conversation ca. 1993, Janusz Laskowski and Andre Laplante suggested a symposium on Fundamentals of Mineral Processing. Initially viewed as a stand-alone event, it it became a biennial symposium series at COM based on discussions among members of the Minerals Sciences section of MetSoc. Starting in 1995 as the UBC-McGill Symposium, it expanded in 2005 to include U of A. The series ran to 2013, each with a published volume and now recognized as an International Symposium. The intent is to revive the series as a showcase for mineral processing research and in recognition of the “casual conversation,” to call it the Laskowski / Laplante Symposium Series on Fundamentals of Mineral Processing. Following a brief history, the presentation will highlight some of the contributions made in the symposium series.
James Finch graduated in 1969 with BSc in Minerals Engineering from Birmingham University (UK) and with MSc (1971) and PhD (1973) in Metallurgical Engineering from McGill University, Canada. On staff in the Department of Mining and Materials Engineering, McGill University, from 1973 to 2014, he was Department Chair (1988 to 1991) and Gerald G. Hatch Chair in Mining and Metallurgical Engineering (2005-14). He held a succession of Industrial Research Chairs from 1991 onwards, supervising 50 PhDs, co-authoring 400 + articles, and two books Column Flotation (1990) and 8th Edition of Wills’ Mineral Processing Technology (2016). From SME he received the Gaudin Award, from CIM the Alcan Award, Falconbridge Innovation Award, and twice CMP Best Presentation Award, from NSERC the Leo Derikx Synergy Award for Innovation, and from IMPC the Lifetime Achievement Award. A conference was held in his honour, Sudbury, 2009, and he was General Chair of XXVIII IMPC in Québec City, 2016. He is a Fellow of CIM, and Fellow of the Royal Society of Canada being elected to the Academy of Science of the Royal Society of Canada in 2002. He retired 2014 as the Gerald G. Hatch Emeritus Professor in Mining and Metallurgical Engineering.
Light Metals for Transportation and Next Generation Vehicles
Imposed shape change of metals increases the load carrying capacity per unit area of cross-section. In tensile tests, the stress, σ, increases with strain, ε, which is work-hardening characterized by monotonic decrease of slope, (∂σ/∂ε). The uniform elongation, εunif, terminates whenever the increase in load carrying capacity due to increase in slope for an incremental strain becomes less than that of the decrease in cross-sectional area, the Considere criterion. Hence microstructure evolution to extend εunif defines the ductility of the material. The imposed strain cause slip to occur on parallel lattice planes, the spacing, hγ, which decrease with strain. The resulting dislocation structure must satisfy two criteria, one the passage stress of parallel dislocation separated by spacing, hτ, of one slip system and the intersection of dislocations on interpenetrating slip systems. Due to dislocation annihilation, hτ > hγ, and the resulting flow stress is a function of ∂σ/∂ε and strain. From this relation, the operative strength of obstacle, α, is derived and plotted versus strain, the comparison of which with change of thermomechanical processing can inform how to increase ductility. The new approach is implemented into the Crystal Plasticity Finite Element Method (CPFEM) to predict the onset of both diffuse and localized necking during various strain paths. Finally, CPFEM is employed to demonstrate the effect of α on the onset of localized deformation.
Shigeo Saimoto Raised in British Columbia, Shig to his family and friends, graduated from the University of British Columbia with a B.A.Sc. in Engineering Physics, followed by M.A.Sc. in Metallurgical Engineering. After a summer studentship at CANMET in Ottawa, he proceeded to Massachusetts Institute of Technology for his Ph.D. in Metallurgy. He returned to Ottawa, Canada on a National Research Council Fellowship at the Division of Physics. After two years, he joined the Faculty of Engineering at Queen’s University at Kingston, Ontario.
He is currently Professor Emeritus in the Department of Mechanical and Materials Engineering. His current interest is in the integration of basic crystal plasticity principles with metal fabrication processes. So his studies, after a long journey in crystal physics, are returning to his roots in metal fabrication which he acquired at the Metals Processing Laboratory at MIT. He has been an NSERC grant holder throughout his tenure at Queen’s University and also a grantee of the Ontario Centre for Materials Research.
Kaan Inal is a Professor in the Department of Mechanical and Mechatronics Engineering (Cross-Appointed to the Department of Systems Design Engineering) at the University of Waterloo, ON., Canada. He received his undergraduate degree in 1996 and his Ph.D. in 2001. Dr. Inal joined the Department of Mechanical and Mechatronics Engineering at the University of Waterloo in 2006 where he is currently the Associate Director of Waterloo Centre for Automotive Research (WatCAR). Dr. Inal also holds a NSERC/General Motors Industrial Research Chair in “Integrated Computational Mechanics for Mass Efficient Automotive Structures”. His primary research focuses on multi-scale modeling and development of mechanism driven advanced material models for metals and composites. Accordingly, Dr. Inal has applied multiscale frameworks for several new and emerging materials to enable their applications for structural lightweighting. He also leads a research group focusing on artificial intelligence (AI) and applications of AI in solid mechanics to perform “industrial scale” simulations with advanced physics based models. His research group is one of the first, if not the first, to develop artificial intelligence based numerical frameworks for micromechanics and advanced non-linear FEM problems (crashworthiness, fracture, etc.).
Senior Director, Technical Marketing – Metals & Minerals, Rio Tinto
How can blockchain technology empower consumers to make more sustainable choices? Powered by blockchain technology, START provides transparency, traceability, and provenance across value chains so customers and end users can see key environmental, social, and governance (ESG) information. START tells the entire story—from mine to market—of sustainable materials from Rio Tinto, allowing users to prove to their stakeholders and customers that they share a commitment to sustainability.
Jerome Fourmann is a Senior Director at Rio Tinto, with responsibilities for the Metals & Minerals Technical Marketing global activities. In addition to aluminium, he also oversees the company’s copper, metallics, and minerals including battery materials products. Jerome joined Rio Tinto in 2000 and has been involved in product and market developments. He has utilized his product metallurgy expertise to advance the use of aluminium in the transportation, architectural and consumer durable markets. He is a member of various industry organizations and serves as the chairperson of the Technical Committee on Product Standard at The Aluminum Association. He is also the Chairman of ET’24 and ’28 with the ET Foundation. Jerome is a frequent presenter at industry conferences and a Contributing Editor for the international magazine Light Metal Age. Jerome holds a Master degree in Materials Science and Metallurgical Engineering from the School of Foundry & Forging in Paris France and and is based in Chicago, Illinois.
Wasmund Memorial Symposium of Sustainability in Pyrometallurgy
The promise of ‘green’ electricity is spurning a potential renaissance of electric furnace smelting, as a means to better meet increasingly stringent decarbonisation targets globally. Assuming that ‘green’ electricity generation addresses some key CO2-e issues, the next sub-element of the system to tackle would be to lower the overall CO2-e associated with electric furnace smelting. This would include improving the consumption of graphite or Söderberg electrodes used for electrical energy input on industrial electric smelting furnaces, to lower still further their contribution to the net CO2-e generation associated with electric furnace smelting.
The historical evolution of electrode carbon consumption, for a broad range of smelted commodities and different electric furnace smelting modes and conditions is surveyed to establish key electrode consumption trends. Contributions of different sources of electrode consumption through oxidation and dissolution reactions, and as distinct from mechanical electrode loss, will be explored for the different electric furnaces and their operation. Opportunities for improvement and lowering of electrode consumption across electric furnace smelting will be explored for each of the primary electrode types.
Comparison of differing consumption by electrode type, is also relevant due to the different carbon-based binder types and sources, used in manufacture of the primary two electrode types, when it is appreciated that the binders are currently largely sourced from coal tar pitch associated with ironmaking coke ovens. The latter units and so primary pitch production are themselves under threat, due to the potential that large-scale conversion to electric furnace ironmaking presents. This magnifies benefits of reduced net electrode consumption in still more efficient electric furnace smelting, in addition to the contribution of inherently lower electrode consumption, to lowering overall CO2-e footprint.
In 2003 we wrote a paper for TMS 2003 with the title “PYROMETALLURGICAL REACTORS CLOSERS OF THE RECYCLING MATERIAL CYCLE“ . 20 years further, in 2023 this message is as true as ever, the only difference being the wording has changed to circular economy. We have discussed this aspect in detail also pointing to the opportunities and limits of the circular economy . This topic will surely show the significance and honour Dr. Bert Wasmund. There are so many papers presently discussing the criticality of elements mostly without the depth of physics, few are highlighting the fact that without metallurgical reactors and their infrastructure, all metals and elements become critical . As any metallurgist will know, thermodynamics, kinetics, mass, momentum and heat transfer, reactor type etc. all play a significant role in economically embracing the laws of physics to push the recovery of elements to different material phases to their respective limits, while defining this also in terms of maximizing energy and exergy efficiency . This paper will show the various key roles und technological advancements that have been made and are required to ensure that metallurgical reactors close the loop within the circular economy as we recently discussed  as best possible and dictated by the underlying physics and realted economics. This discussion will also be linked to product design as for example done in the EU projects Treasure (www.treasureproject.eu) and CIRC-UITS.  M.A. Reuter, J.J. Eksteen, A. van Schaik (2003): Pyrometallurgical reactors – Closers of the material cycle (Invited). Proc. TMS Annual Meeting Yazawa International Symposium on Metallurgical and Materials Processing: Principles and Technologies. 3-6th March 2003 in San Diego, California. Vol. 1. 1005-1018.  M.A. Reuter, A. van Schaik, J. Gutzmer, N. Bartie, A. Abadías Llamas (2019): Challenges of the Circular Economy – A material, metallurgical and product design perspective. Annual Review of Materials Research, 49, 253-274.  M. Frenzel, J. Kullik, M.A. Reuter, J. Gutzmer (2017): Raw material “criticality” – Sense or nonsense? J. Phys. D: Appl. Phys. 50 (12), 123002  N.J. Bartie, Y.L. Cobos-Becerra, M. Fröhling, R. Schlatmann, M.A. Reuter (2021): The Resources, Exergetic and Environmental Footprint of the Silicon Photovoltaic Circular Economy: Assessment and Opportunities, Resource Conservation Recycling 169, 105516.  Y. Wang, J. Wang, L. Cao, Z. Cheng, B. Blanpain, M. Reuter, M. Guo (2023): The State-of-the-Art in the Top Submerged Lance Gas Injection Technology: A Review Metallurgical and Materials Transactions B, (online).
Industry: Chief Expert – SMS Group (Germany 2020 ongoing) | Chief Technologist Ausmelt Australia & Director Technology Management – Outotec (Australia and Finland 2006-2015); Anglo American Corporation & Mintek (1984-1985 & 1994-1996 South Africa).
Academic: Director Helmholtz Institute Freiberg (Germany 2015-2020); Full Professor @ TU Delft (Netherlands 1996-2005) and @ Melbourne University (Australia 2005-2018, from Dec 2006 professorial fellow as worked in industry); Honorary & adjunct professorships @ (i) TUBAF Freiberg (Germany 2015 ongoing); (ii) Curtin University Perth (Australia 2018 ongoing) (iii) Aalto University (Finland 2012-2018); (iv) Central South University (China 2012-2017).
Education: D.Eng. & PhD Stellenbosch University (2006 & 1991 South Africa); Dr. habil. RWTH Aachen (1995 Germany).
Honorary Doctorates: 2 Honorary Doctorates (i) 2015 University of Liège (Belgium), (ii) 2017 University of Stellenbosch (South Africa).
Academic Ranking: 2022 Global Stanford top 2% Scientist Ranking: Globally 9th in Mining and Metallurgy category – single year 2021 | Globally 26th in Mining and Metallurgy category (complete career) | Globally 44,669th of 200,409 in all categories single year 2021 | Globally 108,571th of 195,606 in all categories (career)
Publications and Patents: H-factor: 40 (Scopus) 51 (Google); >38 patents in 4 patent families.
Bert Wasmund was a remarkable individual in pyrometallurgy in many ways. Long before sustainability was a driving force in engineering, it was a common element in Bert’s approach to solving every problem. Bert could not tolerate complacency or seeing wasted energy, materials, or lost opportunities, and this was evident in any project or endeavour he was involved in. Whether it was increasing the smelting intensity of an electric furnace to reduce wasted energy, or capturing sulphur emissions from pyrometallurgical vessels to efficiently make sulphuric acid, Bert was always thinking beyond today’s standards and looking for ways in which a process could be more energy efficient, environmentally sustainable, and ultimately, one that is also in the best interest of the project and its stakeholders. However, his leadership and foresight stretched much further than the technical problems. Bert understood that developing young engineers, from diverse backgrounds, and leading them to find a passion for pyrometallurgy is the only path towards truly solving the mining industry’s greatest challenges; both today and in the future. He also understood the need for mining and pyrometallurgy to deliver benefits to communities where these activities occurred. Bert showed an unwavering commitment and service to young engineers, as a teacher, mentor, and a friend, fostering a mindset of doing what is right both for today and tomorrow. This is one of his most important contributions to a future of sustainable pyrometallurgy. This paper describes some of the highlights of Bert’s contributions and legacy.
Terry graduated University of Waterloo with a BASc and MASc in Chemical Engineering. He joined Hatch in 1997 in the Pyrometallurgical Process Group where he worked alongside Bert Wasmund, Andy Matyas and Ian Candy in the deployment of computerized mass and energy balances for pyrometallurgy and working on a number of key projects including the Stillwater Smelter and BMR Expansion, the Line 2 Expansion at CMSA and the development of the NST flowsheet which was deployed for Falconbridge’s (Glencore) Koniambo project. In 2000, he left Hatch and worked for Lakeside Process Controls where he focused on process optimization and integrate system design for metal production, energy, pulp and paper and pipeline clients. In 2008 he rejoined Hatch as the Global Director of Hatch’s Process Technology group which supported Hatch’s technology Business practice in the deployment of Furnace, Coilbox and Process Optimization Technology. In 2016 he became a Senior Consultant with Hatch’s advisory business with a focus on Catastrophic Risk assessment for several clients including Glencore, Anglo American, Timet, and Vale. In 2020 he returned to the Technology Business Practice, assuming a dual role as a Senior Process Consultant and managing the Knowledge Management portfolio in standardization for Technologies. In addition to his work at Hatch, Terry is a contributing member for CSA Z767 which is Canada’s Process Safety Management standard.