Meet the Keynote Speakers

We are happy to announce our keynote speakers. There will be 13 keynote speakers spread out over the 3 days of the conference.

Click on the (+) symbol to read their presentation abstract or their bio.

August 17 – 13:00-13:45

Symposium: Chloride Metallurgy

Bryn Harris

Consultant

It has long been appreciated that chloride chemistry has a number of advantages over the more traditional sulfate route for both extracting and separating metals. Modern materials of construction, coupled with the development of a more cost-effective and efficient hydrochloric acid regeneration technology mean that chloride-based processes offer both lower capital and operating cost advantages. Chloride-based processing routes are able to recover much more of the contained metal values in a feed, including iron in a benign and marketable form, and particularly the so-called rare and rare-earth elements which are increasing in demand in our electronic age. These factors, therefore, add appreciably both to the overall economics of a project, but also offer a much more sustainable approach to our dwindling natural resources. Additionally, chloride-based flowsheets are much more environmentally-friendly, offering practical alternatives to two of the biggest headaches faced by the industry, namely residue volume and toxicity. The paper presents a brief theoretical background review, focusing on the laterst developments of the low-temperature, selective hydrovhloric acid regeneration process, which is the key unit operation for any chloride flowsheet, and discusses in general the advantages of the chloride approach.

Bryn Harris received his Ph.D. in Minerals Engineering from the University of Birmingham, U.K. in 1973. He then spent five years working for ZCCM on the Zambian Copperbelt, notably on improved methods of cobalt recovery. After leaving Zambia, he worked for twelve years with Noranda, including developing a process for the Blackbird Cobalt Mine and developing, testing and building the CCR Gold Refinery. Subsequently he worked for Hatch, spearheading the process team for the Chambishi Cobalt Plant Expansion. Dr. Harris is a past chair of the Hydrometallurgy Section of CIM, was the recipient of their Sherritt Award for Hydrometallurgy in 1995, a silver medal for Innovation in the Canada Business Awards in 1987 for the CCR Gold Refinery, and is a CIM Fellow. He was the keynote speaker for the ALTA Nickel-Cobalt-Copper conference in 2019, has authored or co-authored over 70 technical publications, is the holder of 16 patents, and has been instrumental in the building of four commercial metallurgical plants.

August 17 – 13:00-13:45

Symposium: Advances in Materials Manufacturing V – Dr. Xinjin Cao Memorial Symposium

Daolun Chen

Professor, Ryerson University

Lightweighting is one of the most effective strategies to reduce fuel consumption and harmful emissions in the automotive industry. It has been reported that the global automotive lightweight materials market is expected to surpass US$ 245 billion by 2026. Vehicle lightweighting can be achieved via stronger materials such as advanced high-strength steels or lighter materials such as magnesium (Mg) and aluminum (Al) alloys, along with essential manufacturing methods. Dissimilar welding between magnesium and other alloys represents a huge challenge, since intermetallic compounds (IMCs) may occur to potentially cause premature failure. Some emerging solid-state joining techniques, such as ultrasonic spot welding (USW), friction stir spot welding, have been developed to join light alloys. In this talk, a number of examples on the welding of dissimilar Mg-to-Al, Mg-to-steel and Al-to-steel via USW will be presented. The weld interface experienced dynamic recrystallization during similar welding, while an IMC layer or eutectic layer was formed during dissimilar welding, depending on material combinations and welding parameters. To diminish the occurrence of IMCs, a tin or zinc interlayer was used during dissimilar welding. It was observed that the tensile lap shear strength and fatigue life of the dissimilar welded joints were effectively enhanced. The evolution in the microstructure and texture as well as fatigue fracture mechanisms of the welded joints will also be presented.

Dr. Daolun Chen, Dr.rer.nat., PhD, PEng, AFCASI, FIMMM, FCSME, FCIM, FCAE, is a Professor in the Department of Mechanical and Industrial Engineering, Ryerson University, Toronto. He is a world-leading researcher in the mechanical behavior of materials. Dr. Chen has published 429 peer-reviewed journal (343) and conference (86) papers including an invited “Advanced Engineering Materials Hall of Fame” article, plus 201 non-refereed conference papers/research reports, with 12,000+ citations and an h-index of 57. His pioneering work on nanocomposites leads to a well-known method that bears his name, and is twice identified by the Council of Canadian Academies to be one of the top 1% most highly cited papers in his field worldwide. He is a fellow of Canadian Academy of Engineering and several other professional societies, and a recipient of a number of prestigious awards, including the G.H. Duggan Medal, Canadian Metal Physics Award, MetSoc Award for Research Excellence, MetSoc Distinguished Materials Scientist Award, and Premier’s Research Excellence Award. Dr. Chen is currently serving on the editorial boards of 28 highly-regarded journals.

August 17 – 13:00-13:45

Symposium: Light Metals for Harsh Environments

Julien Zollinger

Associate Professor, Institut Jean Lamour – Université de Lorraine

The properties of AA6XXX alloys such as high strength-to-weight ratio, good shape forming along with their good corrosion resistance allows for versatile applications such as rocket, cars and marine structures. In this work, the microstructure obtained using ultra-fast nano-second pulsed laser processing is analyzed using SEM, EBSD, TKD and HRTEM. It is shown that the alloy melts and solidifies along thin capillaries, in which grains with size less than a micron are obtained while the initial grain size is 40 µm. The melting and solidification stage are analyzed to determine the frontiers of the melt pool and deepened crystallographic analysis allows to propose a scenario for the grain microstructure observed. Finally, High-resolution imaging with TEM shows that due to the ultra-fast melting and solidification, the liquid phase was not homogeneous and that such atomic scale heterogeneities possibly play a role in microstructure formation using nano-second pulse laser processing.

J. Zollinger is associate professor at the Université de Lorraine, head of the research group “Solidification” at the Institut Jean Lamour in Nancy, France. After obtaining his PhD in Materials Science and Engineering from the National Polytechnic Institute of Lorraine in 2008, he worked in ACCESS, a RWTH-Aachen institute, as research associate until 2010. In 2011, he joined the department of Metallurgy and Materials Science & Engineering in Institut Jean Lamour. His research interests are solid/liquid phase transformation with emphasis on microstructure formation of metal alloys during rapid solidification processing. He authored more than 60 publications and was awarded the IMPRESS Prize for Young Researcher (European Space Agency) in 2008, the Jean Rist Medal (French Metallurgical society) in 2014, nominated for the FEMS lecturer award in 2016, the Acta Materialia Outstanding Reviewer award in 2017 and the Light Metal Best Paper award (MetSoc) in 2018.

August 17- 14:00-14:45

Symposium: Corrosion and Environmental Degradation of Materials

James Noel

Assistant Professor, The University of Western Ontario

The elemental content of corrosion products released from the surfaces of Hastelloy BC-1, C-22, and G-35 specimens exposed to naturally aerated 1 M hydrochloric acid solutions was quantified by operando application of atomic emission spectroelectrochemistry (AESEC), to explore the compositional contribution to each alloy’s response to surface activation, spontaneous repassivation, and electrochemically promoted passivation, including the kinetics. After the surface oxides were intentionally damaged to initiate the corrosion process, spontaneous repassivation proceeded primarily by processes resulting in deposition and accumulation of Mo-containing species, though accumulation of Cr-rich oxides was also an important factor. An alloy’s ability to recover from oxide film damage was found to improve with increased Mo content. For the alloy with the lowest Mo content considered here, approximately 8 wt.% Mo, repassivation was unsuccessful and active dissolution was observed. For alloys with higher Mo contents, BC-1 (22.10 wt.% Mo) and C-22 (12.97 wt.% Mo), repassivation occurred quickly and dissolution rates stabilized at values comparable to those of the original passive surface; however, alloy C-22 required a slightly longer time and exhibited momentary breakdown events. The surface species responsible for successful repassivation were found by ex-situ X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy to be predominantly Mo(IV) oxides. During electrochemically promoted passivation processes, previously accumulated Mo species were found to be partially removed, while accumulation of Cr species dominated the film formation; however, Mo still played a significant part during the re-formation of the Cr-rich passive oxide film. The concept of Mo species accumulation and subsequent dissolution is consistent with our previous studies of film breakdown and repair. These findings suggest the dual role of alloy Mo in stabilizing and repairing the oxide film.

Dr. Jamie Noël, Assistant Professor of Chemistry at Western University, is an electrochemist and
corrosion scientist whose research includes studies of the degradation of nuclear fuel and container
materials for permanent disposal of fuel waste. He leads a diverse research group of 25 graduate
and undergraduate students, postdoctoral fellows, and research scientists who conduct
experimental research on many aspects of the corrosion of copper, carbon steel, uranium dioxide,
stainless steels, nickel alloys and other materials. He has industry research partnerships with the
Nuclear Waste Management Organization (Toronto) and the Swedish Nuclear Fuel and Waste
Management Company, SKB, as well as other non-nuclear industry partners. He is Chair of the
Electrochemical Society Education Committee, Chair of the Electrochemical Society Corrosion
Division, and Associate Editor of CORROSION Journal. He has published over 100 refereed
journal articles, 50 refereed conference proceedings papers, 20 commercial reports, and 5 book
chapters and was awarded the Western Faculty of Science Distinguished Research Professorship
(2019 & 2020), and the Electrochemical Society R.C. Jacobsen (2018) and Lash Miller Awards
(2003).

August 17- 14:00-14:45

Symposium: Advances in Materials Manufacturing V – Dr. Xinjin Cao Memorial Symposium

Marjan Molavi-Zarandi

National Research Council Canada

Additive manufacturing (AM) is a layer-by-layer fabrication technology poised to bring about a revolution in the way products are designed, manufactured, and integrated. This technology has gained significant industry interest due to its ability to create parts consolidation and complex geometries with customizable material properties. Parts are fabricated directly from the three-dimensional digital model and their precise geometries and material distribution could result in higher performance than parts obtained using conventional manufacturing techniques. Among metal AM processes, laser powder bed fusion (LPBF) is the major technology as it represents around 80% of metal AM equipment installed globally. Although being formerly used to produce prototypes, LPBF is more and more foreseen to manufacture near-net-shape structural components with complex geometries. Nevertheless, there are still some technical barriers and challenges for the production of metallic parts. The build-up of residual stresses in a part during laser powder bed fusion provides a significant limitation to the adoption of this process. These residual stresses may cause a part to fail during a build or fall outside the specified tolerances after fabrication. Defect-free production of metallic parts using LPBF requires process optimization which consists of establishing a quantitative correlation between final part characteristics and process parameters to determine the optimum parameters in order to fabricate a fully functional mechanical component. Development of a numerical model to accurately predict the induced residual stresses and distortion during the LPBF process would be of great interest as it would allow to effectively investigate the influence of processing parameters on the quality of the parts. Additionally, a reliable numerical model can drastically reduce the expensive experimental costs associated with the number of tests, cut-ups, as well as manufacturing iterations required for the development of additive manufactured parts. In this invited presentation, we present ongoing activities at National Research Council Canada (NRC) to develop a high fidelity finite element (FE) model to simulate the build process and calculate the residual stress state and distortion for specimens built with a continuous scan strategy. The presentation will discuss a novel inherent strain (local-global) approach that has recently been developed to speed up the computations of LPBF simulation. The model was then validated by experimental results for distortion and residual stresses. Based on the findings from the thermomechanical simulations, there is a good agreement between X-ray diffraction measurements and 3D scanning data used to determine the residual stresses and distortions in the parts.

Marjan Molavi-Zarandi is a Research Officer at the National Research Council ofCanada (NRC). She holds a Ph.D. in Mechanical Engineering from McGill University.After finishing her doctorate studies in 2013, she worked as a Postdoctoral Fellow inthe Advanced Structure Core Engineering Department, at Bombardier Aerospace,where she performed topology optimization for aircraft components for laserpowder bed fusion (LPBF) additive manufacturing. In 2015, she joined SiemensCanada as a Postdoctoral Fellow for the development of a high fidelity finiteelement model to simulate the LPBF process with applications in gas turbinecomponents. After joining the Numerical Modelling and Simulation team at NRC in2016, Marjan has been pursuing her research and development activities byengaging in several collaborative research projects in numerical modelling for fluidand structural mechanics, heat transfer, optimization, composite forming andadditive manufacturing processes.

August 17- 14:00-14:45

Symposium: Challenges of Industry 4.0: Sensors, Control, Automation, and the Use of Digital Information

Mohamad Sabsabi

National Research Council Canada

The mining industry is facing the challenges of declining high-grade ore, commodity markets, cost factors and environmental considerations. There is an increasing need to drive down costs while improving efficiency and productivity through innovation, in such fields as on-line analysis and control, automation and robotics, drilling and real-time decision support. In order to address these issues and embrace Industry 4.0, an ongoing effort towards the automation of traditional manufacturing and industrial practices, using modern smart technology is underway to overcome these challenges. The mining industry is looking for practical solutions for developing more accurate and effective measurement and control technologies in order to monitor the feed quality and to improve the recovery efficiency and the tailings treatment.

The Laser-Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy (LIBS) technique is a form of atomic emission spectroscopy of a plasma plume induced by laser on the material to be analyzed. LIBS has advanced over the last 50 years to become a successful emerging technology for numerous chemical analysis applications. The advent of new compact components (laser, spectrometer and detector) makes the technology more accessible in terms of robustness, low cost, analytical performances to deliver its benefits for real time analysis.

In this talk, we will give an overview of the LIBS technique and its development. We will present a critical analysis of its application for real time analysis in the mining value chain, from pit to port. We will discuss some breakthroughs at NRC for the real time analysis of precious metals, bitumen, mineralogy, etc., and their impact on the automation process in the mining field.

Mohamad Sabsabi received his Ph.D. in physics from the University of Paris (France) in 1988. After his post-doc on thermal plasmas at the University of Sherbrooke, he joined the NRC in 1992 where he initiated activities in laser plasma spectroscopy. He holds 20 patents and has a record of more than 550 publications (articles and conference proceeding) covering fundamental aspects and industrial applications of laser-induced plasmas. He pioneered the LIBS application for pharmaceutical industry. He succeeded with his team to implement the LIBS technology for many applications; in particular, the methods and tools developed for molten metals analysis have been adopted in the five continents. From his inventions, there have been 3 spin-off companies and 10 technology transfers in the industrial applications of LIBS into the mining, agricultural, metallurgical, pharmaceutical, aerospace and manufacturing industries. He invented and built with his team the first world on the spot gold analyser and most sensitive handheld LIBS for carbon detection based on fiber laser and photon counting. Mohamad initiated and lead successfully for 4 years the High Efficiency Mining (HEM) program at NRC. The HEM (50M$) program aims to improve process efficiency throughout the mining value by developing advanced sensors, process technologies and advanced materials. Mohamad was a member of the editorial advisory board and guest editor of Spectrochimica Acta B, Analytical and Bioanalytical Chemistry (ABC) and Applied Optics (AO) etc. He is a chairman of the LIBS2006 conference (4th International conference on laser-induced plasmas and its applications) in Montreal, vice chair and co-organizer of the international LIBS conferences. He is the recipient of the LIBS award at the LIBS summit Beijing 2019. He played many leadership roles at NRC since more than 28 years and he is currently a principal research officer at NRC and building a new platform on sensor.

August 18 – 12:30-13:15

Symposium: Advances in Materials Manufacturing V – Dr. Xinjin Cao Memorial Symposium

Olanrewaju Ojo

Professor, University of Manitoba

Ranging from diffusion-based advanced materials processing techniques, such as, surface alloying, sintering, and bonding, to diffusion-controlled phase transformations that influence materials microstructure and properties, reliable use of concentration dependent interdiffusion coefficient, D=F(C), to predict and/or understand materials behaviour is fundamentally crucial. The common standard analytical methods that are used to determine D=F(C) in binary alloy systems include Boltzman-Matano (BM), Sauer- Freise (SF), Hall, Sarafianos, and Wagner procedures. Moreover, the D=F(C)s obtained by these methods are used in the computation of atomic mobilities for diffusion analyses in multi-component systems. The use of D=F(C)s obtained by these standard analytical methods in several practical applications have been predicated on some major assumptions that have not been adequately scrutinized. One of these assumptions is that solute concentration is mainly dependent on a single variable, l, the ratio of distance to the square-root of time, which is known as the Boltzmann’s parameter, and as such, the D=F(C) is time independent. Secondly, it is generally assumed that the D=F(C) obtained under the condition of constant surface concentration, which is the prevailing condition during the determination of D=F(C) by the standard analytical methods, is applicable for cases that involve a time-varying surface or solute-source concentration e.g., during homogenization processes. A third assumption is that the standard D=F(C)s can be used to analyze or model multi-stage processes, where a non-uniform solute distribution pre-exists in a material prior to a diffusion treatment at a given temperature, e.g., multi-stage heat treatments, sintering, bonding and coating. Unfortunately, proper verification of the validity of these key assumptions can not be performed by analytical approach, systematic numerical analyses are imperative. In our work, we used the Leapfrog/Dufort-Frankel’s explicit scheme to develop a numerical diffusion model, which we coupled with a numerical inverse simulation technique to compute D=F(C)s from experimental concentration profiles to verify these assumptions. The results of the study, which unveil invalidity of the assumptions, and the implications on the use of D=F(C) obtained by the standard analytical methods to produce reliable theoretical predictions and analyses of diffusion effects, will be presented and discussed.

Professor Ojo is an internationally recognised expert in the field of processing of advanced
materials. He has over 185 international journal publications, conference papers and
presentations. Out of these, more than 125 papers are international archival journal publications.
One of his journal papers won the Award of the Best Paper out of all the papers published in
the Canadian Metallurgical Quarterly in 2007 and his research work received the 2009
Microscopical Society of Canada Gerard T. Simon Award for the Best Presentation. Professor
Ojo was awarded 2013 Rh Award for outstanding contributions to research and scholarship and
he was nominated twice for the Canadian prestigious Steacie Prize award. He also received the
Govindraj Memorial Research Award for outstanding research contributions in 2014. He has
supervised more than 70 research students including PhD and postdoctoral research fellows.
His expertise is widely sought after by various international aerospace companies.

August 18 – 12:30-13:15

Symposium: Advances in Mineral Processing: Challenges and Opportunities

Allan Cramm

Co-Founder and VP of Innovation, Novamera Inc.

We are a part of a society who wants whatever is new, the latest model. It could be a new phone, a new smart watch, new headphones, even though what we have works well. The current global population is 7.8 billion and over 5 billion of us have a mobile device. What may surprise many people is that cell phone production also results in the production of one-half tonne of tailings, 16 kg of CO2 and 13,000 litres of water. A cellphone is made from a variety of metals including aluminum alloys and other lightweight materials commonly found in the phone case, lithium cobalt oxide and carbon graphite used to make the batteries, and elements such as gold, copper, silver, platinum, tungsten, and various rare metals used in the circuitry. With the world population projected to reach 9.9 billion by 2050, an increase of more than 25%, the demand for cell phones could reach 42 million new phones/year. If current practices persist, this could result in the production of 21 million tonnes of tailings to satisfy people with a desire to have their first phone, and do not forget there are 5.25 billion people who currently have a phone and will want a new one when the next model becomes available. However, you may not be able to have a new phone because we may not have the materials necessary to make one for the following reasons:

Deposits of all minerals are getting harder to find.

Residents do not want conventional mining in their backyard.

ESG demands a totally new approach.

But there are options, including circularity, a process to utilize 100% of the resource. Imagine a mine that does this by first separating and selling its precious metals, then crushes and ships the coarse mine waste in 60,000 tonne vessels to a construction project 2200 nautical miles away. The fine waste is then sold as volcanic Rock Dust, a soil amendment. Anaconda Mining inc. are amongst the first in the industry to develop and capitalize on this opportunity. These are options for conventional operations, but what about mining of other known, uneconomic zones or deposits that exist around the world? Novamera Inc. is developing and testing a new mining method called SMD (Sustainable Mining by Drilling) near the Anaconda Mining’s site in Newfoundland. This new technology aims to lower cost, minimize dilution, lower energy consumption, and has a built-in requirement for progressive rehabilitation. We all have a key role to play in the pursuit of better resource management, a low-carbon future and increasing circularity of the economy.

Mr. Allan Cramm is a Co-Founder and VP of Innovation with Novamera Inc. Allan has been involved in various management, supervisory and engineering roles associated with mining for the past 35 years (both open pit and underground). He has a high regard for environmental protection with some associated projects having been recognized provincially and nationally for their attention to environmental stewardship. He has received several awards for his contributions over the years including the 2012 Queens Diamond Jubilee Award and The Sam Blagdon Award for contribution to the community through mining activity. In June 2017, he was awarded an honorary membership with PEGNL (Professional Engineers and Geoscientists Newfoundland Labrador ) and in 2018, was inducted into the International Mining Technology Hall of Fame. Allan has been invited to serve on many industry and academic boards, committees and association including, Private Sector Advisory Committee for the development of the province of Newfoundland’s Business Innovation Agenda, Memorial University Process Engineering Advisory Board, Canadian Manufactures and Exporters-Newfoundland Central Improvement Network, Past VP-Eastern District -Canadian Institute of Mining and Metallurgy and Petroleum. Advisory Board of The Harris Center -Memorial University of Newfoundland. Natural Resources Canada – Green Mining Initiative Advisory Committee.

August 18 – 13:30-14:15

Symposium: WALSIM IX: Water, Air, and Land Sustainability Issues in Mining and Metal Extraction

Roki Fukuzawa

Hatch Ltd.

Nuclear power is important to a low carbon future where the need for technologies to remove, consolidate, and reduce nuclear waste will only increase throughout the entire nuclear material lifecycle. Radioactive metal melting holds significant promise and opportunity for achieving these goals. The selection of an off-gas technology is critical to the success of a metal melting process, as it serves to capture the airborne radioactive contamination generated. In this paper, the authors summarize the results of a comprehensive review of various off-gas technologies that could be employed. These technologies were assessed against a selected set of criteria including technology effectiveness, maintenance burden, ease of use/automation, and high-level implementation costs. The purpose of the study is to outline a framework that can be used to select suitable off-gas technologies to capture radiological contamination depending on the characteristics of the radioactive waste being processed and the specific radioisotopes released during melting.

Roki is a Gas Handling Specialist with more than fourteen years of experience in the design and engineering of off-gas handling systems for metallurgical clients in mostly copper, nickel, zinc and gold industries. She has practical experience in radioactive gas handling having managed a pilot testing program which included design of the equipment, construction, operation and demolition. Roki has worked on many air emissions reduction projects for dust, metals and acid gases abatement. Her key experience is in gas handling technologies such as baghouses, scrubbers, electrostatic precipitators, dry sorbent injection and mercury abatement technologies. She has also assessed energy recovery and greenhouse gas reduction opportunities along with air pollutions abatement, identifying co-benefits and challenges. 

She completed her Master’s degree as a Gates Scholar in Engineering for Sustainable Development at the University of Cambridge with a focus on assessing opportunities to reduce greenhouse gas emissions from the global nickel industry. In addition to her technical roles, Roki is a Project Management Professional (PMP) and has effectively managed many gas handling projects and environmental service work including air emissions inventory, dispersion modeling and permitting.

August 18 – 13:30-14:15

Symposium: Advances in Additive Manufacturing of Light Metals

Ali Nasiri

Assistant Professor, Dalhousie University

With more than 50 Mt of annual production, stainless steels have witnessed the highest production and consumption growth rate per year within the last 30 years among all metallic materials. Such demanding market needs to be supported through implementing efficient and cost-effective manufacturing techniques. In recent years, the emerging additive manufacturing technology has opened up new fabrication opportunities with customized designs, reduced production time, and improved materials consumption, fostering sustainability into manufacturing systems. Focusing on this topic, in this talk, additive manufacturing of recently developed 13-8 Mo precipitation hardening martensitic stainless steel, also known as CX stainless steel, with applications in plastic molding tools, extrusion dies, and marine will be discussed. Particular attention will be given to both small-scale and large-scale fabrication methods of the alloy employing laser powder bed fusion (L-PBF) and wire arc additive manufacturing (WAAM) processes, respectively. The pros and cons of both processes are discussed along with detailed comparisons between their as-printed microstructural features, mechanical properties, and corrosion performance.

Dr. Ali Nasiri is currently a Canada Research Chair (CRC) in Ocean Engineering, an assistant professor and the director of Large-scale Advanced Manufacturing (LAAM) Lab in the mechanical engineering department at Dalhousie University. He is also affiliated to the mechanical engineering department at the Memorial University of Newfoundland through an Adjunct Professor appointment. Dr. Nasiri’s current research activities are mainly directed towards advancing the state-of-the-art wire arc additive manufacturing (WAAM) technology to fabricate large-scale components with tailored properties at drastically reduced production time and cost. His major contributions to the field of advanced manufacturing include: 1) metal AM technologies: understanding the process-microstructure-properties-performance correlations; 2) corrosion and electrochemical stability of AM products; 3) dissimilar metals and hybrid structures fabrication; and 4) WAAM technology advancement. In recognition of his contributions to the field of advanced hybrid manufacturing, he has been awarded several top-tier international awards in his field, including the American Welding Society (AWS) Robert L. Peaslee Memorial Award and the Glenn J. Gibson AWS Fellowship Award.

August 19 – 10:30-11:15

Symposium: Advances in Materials Manufacturing V – Dr. Xinjin Cao Memorial Symposium

Yu Zou

Assistant Professor, University of Toronto

Throughout history, exploration of material properties at different length scales, both large and small, have fundamentally reshaped human understanding of the physical world and catalyzed industrial growth. Towards this vision, my seminar will focus on mechanical properties of materials in the size ranging from a few micrometers to about one hundred nanometers. I will first explain a well observed phenomenon – “smaller-is-stronger”. Then, I will share insights on mechanical characterization of emerging nanostructured refractory high-entropy alloys: I achieve mechanically strong (yield strength of ~10 GPa) and thermally stable (after annealing at 1100 °C for 3 days) nanocrystalline alloys, surpassing conventional nickel-based superalloys and pure tungsten. In addition to small-scale mechanics, I will talk about my research on metal additive manufacturing (3D printing) techniques – selective laser melting in which fast melting and solidification of metal powder result in bulk components, as well as cold spray and RF Plasma spray. In closing, I will talk about future research directions of my group about the combinatorial development of structural materials.

Dr. Yu Zou joined the Department of Materials Science and Engineering at University of Toronto (U of T) as an Assistant Professor in January 2018. Before joining U of T in 2018, he was a postdoctoral fellow in the Department of Mechanical Engineering at Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT), working on laser-based metal additive manufacturing with Prof. A. John Hart. He received his Doctor of Sciences in Materials from ETH Zurich in 2016 with Prof. Ralph Spolenak. His doctoral thesis focused on small-scale plasticity of ionic crystals, high-entropy alloys, and quasicrystals. He was also a JSPS visiting scholar at Kyoto University in 2014, working on in situ nanomechanical testing with Prof. Takayuki Kitamura. He received his master’s and bachelor’s degrees from McGill University and Beihang University, respectively, all in materials science and engineering. At McGill, he worked on cold sprayed metallic coatings with Profs. Jerzy Szpunar and Stephen Yue. At U of T, he directs the Laboratory for Extreme Mechanics & Additive Manufacturing (LEMAM). His group uses novel experimental, simulation and analytical methods to explore new metallic materials and advance fields of vital importance to society, including the aerospace, biomedical, and energy sectors. Currently, his group has four primary emphases: (i) multi-metal additive manufacturing, (ii) high-entropy alloys, (iii) multiscale mechanical testing, and (iv) machine learning for material design and manufacturing. Dr. Zou is currently serving as the Chair of Materials Technical Section in the Metallurgy and Materials Society of CIM (MetSoc) in Canada.

August 19 – 11:30-12:15

Symposium: Advances in Materials Manufacturing V – Dr. Xinjin Cao Memorial Symposium

Javad Gholipour Baradari

National Research Council Canada

It is well known that titanium alloys possess high specific tensile strength and good fatigue properties at moderately elevated temperatures up to 500 °C, but they remain notoriously expensive due, not only to the high cost of metal extraction, but also challenges (and thus cost) associated with their shaping, forming and machining. Unsurprisingly, numerous emerging manufacturing technologies for titanium alloys have been researched and developed to allow a reduction in the buy to fly ratio (i.e. minimized scrap). Amongst the different manufacturing advancements for titanium alloys, the development of cost-efficient joining technologies has been especially challenging for designing and net shape processing of load-bearing fatigue critical structures and assemblies. Though titanium alloys are weldable using most fusion-based joining processes, the high reactivity of titanium with atmospheric gases at elevated temperatures above 400°C, and especially in the liquid state, leads to the fusion zone being highly susceptible to solidification defects (e.g. gas porosity) and contamination by oxides/foreign particles from the environment that limit reliable metallurgical and mechanical performance, particularly vis-à-vis the stringent and safety critical requirements in the aerospace industry. The development of solid-state joining technologies, especially linear friction welding (LFW), for titanium alloys has significantly increased the capacity for advanced and precise assembly of complex geometries with high weld integrity and performance. The National Research Council of Canada (NRC) through its Aerospace Manufacturing Technology Center has been a key contributor to the global research and scientific developments on LFW over the past two decades. In this presentation, an overview of the processing developments on different titanium alloys (near-alpha, alpha-beta and near-beta) will be discussed alongside the key microstructural characteristics and performance responses. This presentation will also aim to provide a perspective on future areas for research development in this field.

Dr. Javad Gholipour is the team leader of the coatings and metallic product team at the National Research Council of Canada (NRC). He earned his Ph.D. in 2005 from University of Waterloo in Mechanical Engineering. His research is focused on manufacturing technologies for metallic materials and finite element modeling of the processes. He has worked more than 10 years in , automotive tool manufacturing and aerospace industries before joining NRC. Also, he is an adjunct professor at the École de Technologie Supérieure (ETS) since 2009. He has co-authored over 100 refereed articles and 30 NRC reports. He is an Associate Fellow of Canadian Aeronautics and Space Institute (CASI) and member of CASI council. He also serves as Montréal chapter chair of ASM International.

August 19 – 12:30-13:15

Symposium: Advances in Materials Manufacturing V – Dr. Xinjin Cao Memorial Symposium

Sheida Sarafan

Associate Research Officer, National Research Council Canada

Hybrid additive/subtractive manufacturing leverages the benefits of laser powder-bed fusion with high-speed milling to create parts that have complex geometries, high-quality surface finishes and tight dimensional tolerances in one setup (in-envelope process) without facing referencing challenges when sequentially manufacturing with separate additive and subtractive operations (out-of-envelope process). Development of this hybrid process, however, requires a detailed understanding of the effect of build process parameters and interactions and synergies of the additive and subtractive sequences that affect the microstructure, defects, residual stresses, distortion, dimensional integrity of machined surfaces, and mechanical properties of the final part. The National Research Council of Canada through its Aerospace Manufacturing Technology Center has invested recently in a LUMEX Avance-25 additive/subtractive technology to bridge key knowledge gaps of in-envelope hybrid manufacturing by investigating the inter-relationships between deposition and machining process parameters on the microstructure and performance of metallic materials. This invited presentation will cover hybrid manufacturing of maraging and stainless steels produced in-envelop using laser powder-bed fusion (i.e. selective laser melting) processing with a sequential machining pass after every ten sintering layers, as well as final finishing of selected surfaces. The results examine the validation of the final geometry against the computer-aided design (CAD) model using 3D laser scanning technology. As-built and machined surface roughness properties – measured with a profilometer (linear) and laser confocal microscopy (3D map) – are discussed in terms of typical linear/areal parameters. The influence of the laser powers on parts density was measured using Archimedes method and pycnometry; furthermore, the porosity size distribution was analyzed using X-ray micro-computed tomography (µCT) microscopic observations were also undertaken to examine the influence of dry machining intermittent passes and laser conditions on microstructural features. Mechanical stability assessment involved indentation hardness mapping and tensile testing to evaluate the mechanical response of maraging and stainless steels built by in-envelope additive/subtractive processing. Based on the findings, the presentation will discuss future areas for research and technology advancement for the application of hybrid manufacturing in the automotive and aerospace industrial sectors.

Dr. Sheida Sarafan is an Associate Research Officer at the National Research Council of Canada’s Aerospace Manufacturing Technologies Centre located in Montreal, Canada. Before joining NRC, she completed her Ph.D. studies in materials engineering at École de technologie supérieure (ETS) and continued as a Postdoctoral Fellow working on advanced welding research and technology development. She then returned to work in the turbine industry, where she expanded her expertise in advanced manufacturing (including additive) and structural analysis. Since joining NRC, her research activities have encompassed strategic development of different additive manufacturing technologies for metallic materials, including direct energy deposition (arc, laser and EB) and hybrid powder bed fusion additive-subtractive technologies. She has more than 12 years of industrial and academic experience in different aspects of materials engineering, advanced manufacturing and gas turbine structural analysis of high relevance/impact to the aerospace and energy industries. She has published several peer-reviewed articles in international journals and conferences on the topic of advanced materials and manufacturing.